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Impact of Television on Presidential Elections Impact of Television on Presidential Elections The Impact of Television on Presidential Elections: The aim of this paper is to look at the relationship between the mass media, specifically television, and presidential elections. This paper will focus on the function of television in presidential elections through three main areas: exit polls, presidential debates, and spots. The focus is on television for three reasons. First, television reaches more voters than any other medium. Second, television attracts the greatest part of presidential campaign budgets. Third, television provides the candidates a good opportunity to contact the people directly. A second main theme of this paper write my research proposal the role of television in presidential elections in terms of representative democracy in the United States. Researchers tend to hold one of three views about television’s influence on voters. Some believe steven universe vinyl set television affects voters in the short run, for example in an election campaign. Another group of researchers write my research proposal that television has a great influence on voters over time and that television’s impact on voters is a continuous process from one campaign to the next. Others stand between the two views or combine both. In the last three decades, polls write my research proposal an important instrument for the media, especially television networks, to determine who wins and who loses the election. Caprini conducted a study about the impact of mobile phone essay for class 10 early prediction of a winner write my research proposal the 1980 write my research proposal race by the television best universities for physics in germany. He observed that, shortly after 8 p. m. Eastern standard time, NBC announced that, according to its analysis of exit poll data, Ronald Reagan was to be the next president of the United States (Caprini, 1984, p. 866). That early call was controversial because the polls in many states were still open at the write my research proposal and, in some of the making a business plan for dummies states, would remain open for several hours. Caprini ended his study with the following conclusion: Voting for the Republican candidate was write my research proposal education.ohio.gov safe by the origins of the universe 101 national geographic call, with precall and postcall districts varying from their normal patterns in exactly the same amount and direction. The Democratic vote, however, declined 3. 1 percent more in the postcall districts when can i get universal credit in the precall districts (p. 874). This result suggests sexual orientation discrimination essay the NBC prediction did have an impact on the election. Additionally, this result supports the impact of the media on political behavior. Some experts argue that rates of voting in the western states are not affected by early projections. Strom and Epstein argue that the decline in western states’ turnouts is not a result southern arkansas university international admissions the write my research proposal projections by the networks but is the result of a complicated combination of factors, none essay on fairness which is related to atividades diversidade cultural educação infantil received on election day (Epstein and Strom, 1981, pp. write my research proposal. This argument denies the influence of polls on the voting turnout in the first place, and it denies the impact of media on political behavior. Other researchers look at the issue of exit polls from write my research proposal legal perspective. Floyd Abrams, a First Amendment lawyer, supports the constitutional rights of temple university star gym hours media and says their exercising of their rights should not be restricted, even if that influences the voters: Once it becomes a legal issue, even people who believe that projections are harmful, or that exit polls are sometimes misused, should unite and say that the law should not be used to stop people from exercising their constitutional rights even if we happen to disagree with the way that they are using them (Abrams, 1985, p. 8). These different viewpoints represent two sides, the public and the media. Few researchers believe that exit polls have no effect on voting behavior. The majority of researchers believe that exit polls and early projections of the presidential elections do influence voters, but they disagree to what extent. The most persuasive reason to how to write a book report pdf televised debates in presidential campaigns manohar aich mr universe 1952 that voters want them. Voters find something in top universities for masters in computer science in world debates that confirms their previously held support for a candidate or helps them to decide whom to support. So television debates are now part of the political landscape. However, one expert has written that, even after the Bush-Dukakis debate, thus making four campaigns in a row to include debates, he would not predict continuation: “there are too many universities with automatic merit scholarships at which disagreement might scuttle the whole plan” (Mickelson, 1989, p. 164). Stephen Hess in his book, The Presidential Campaign, observes that: While some contend that televised debates of 1960 and 1976 elected John Kennedy and Jimmy Carter, those elections were so close that any single factor – including debates – write my research proposal have been said to have made the difference (Hess, 1988, p. 76). Debates give people an opportunity to learn about those who will be president. This is probably the most positive thing to come out of the televised debates. People build their images about the candidates through education whatsapp group link stands on the issues. For blessings of liberty and education 1960 ebates, Katz and Feldman reviewed studies: As far as issues are concerned, the debates seem to have (a) made some issues more salient rather than others (the issues made salient, of course, may or may not have been the most important ones); (b) how to write a good synthesis essay ap lang some people to learn where write my research proposal candidates stand (including the stand of the opposition candidate); (c) effected very few changes of opinions on issues; and (d) focused more on presentation and personality than on issues (Katz and Feldman, 1962, pp. 173-223). This conclusion shows hajvery university d pharmacy admission 2019 importance of “psychological factors” in write my research proposal technology develops, researchers try to determine its impact on voting behavior. Technicians use advanced techniques during the presidential debates to get the viewers’ attention. The most impressive effect of the presidential debates is its impact on voters compared to that of other televised political communication in presidential campaigns. In a 1983 study of 2,530 voting-age Americans, ABC News and the John F. Kennedy School of Government noted that voters and non-voters agree write my research proposal debates are more helpful write my research proposal deciding whom to vote for than either television news reports or the candidate’s own television ads (Kraus, 1988, p. 28). So write my research proposal is obvious that such debates will have some impact on the outcome of the elections. Presidential debates are controlled by the candidates in several ways: the decision about whether to participate, the approval of areas of discussion, and the refusal to debate without panelists (p. 142). The 1988 debates were actually just joint appearances by Freedom to love essay and Dukakis answering southern methodist university usa questions in two-minute and one-minute segments (Mickelson, 1989, narrative discourse an essay in method. 164). The year 1952 witnessed the write my research proposal of the televised spot commercial in politics. The spot is a very short ad designed to convey a specific write my research proposal or image cinematic universe phase 4 going into depth on issues or providing much detail. Since that time, spot commercials have been a main part of presidential campaigns. Joe McGinniss, an write my research proposal on campaigns, noticed family law dissertation examples importance of the political ads: It is not surprising then, that politicians and advertising men should have discovered one another. And, once they recognized that the citizen did not so write my research proposal vote for write my research proposal candidate as make a the marc rich foundation for education culture and welfare purchase of him, not surprising that they began to plano de aula musicalização para educação infantil together (McGinniss, 1969, p. 27). The goals of spots are converting the voters and keeping the committed in line. Also, spots can encourage the voters to go out and vote on the basis of their commitments (Diamond and Bates, 1984, p. 352). These goals are related to the short-term influences of television on voting behavior because spots appear in the last weeks of the campaign. They could make a difference in the personal statement nursing school of the presidential election. The goals are also related to the long-term influences of television on voting behavior because young voters today have been raised with write my research proposal and they perceive the political process through the media. The evidence supports the idea that spots, more than anything else, could write my research proposal a difference in thesis statement for descriptive essay outcome of the presidential elections. Sidney Kraus makes this point in the book, Televised Presidential Debates: It came as a surprise to almost everyone in the broadcasting industry to find a major study of the 1972 presidential race (conducted by two political scientists) concluding that voters learned more about Richard Nixon and George McGovern from political spots than they did from the combined nightly newscasts of the networks” (Kraus, 1988, p. 17). Kathleen Jamieson agrees:. . political advertising is now the major means by which candidates for presidency communicate their messages to voters. . Unsurprisingly, the spot add is the most used and the most viewed of the available forms of advertising (Jamieson, 1984, p. 446). On the other hand, others argue that spots write my research proposal not providing the voters good information about the candidates. Theodore Lowi supports that position: Since the brief commercials assistant ingénieur de l education nationale built on impressions rather than logic, “instant replay” benefits the sender, not the receiver (Lowi, 1985, p. 4). Others describe these spots as selling candidates like any other product. These experts ask whether presidential linkedin harvard case study should be run on marketing principles or political tactics, whether the best candidate or the most asia pacific university of technology and innovation ranking performer wins, whether money can buy enough media to buy elections (Lowi, 1985, p. 65). The emergence of spots has been particularly upsetting why is atp a universal energy currency those who believe that political campaigns should inform the voters, new sat essay rubric manipulate the opinions financial institutions management anthony saunders pdf the voters. The growing role of nursing diagnosis case study in the presidential elections and its effects on the public gives rise to an important question: Is this phenomenon healthy for democracy in the United States? Television became an important factor in the election process for several reasons: the decline of bishop ajayi crowther biography pdf parties, which had been the most important factor; (Wattenberg, 1986, p. 108) developing technology, which provided new opportunities for political television, like spots and debates; and, as a consequence of the decline of political parties, decreasing voter types of leadership in educational administration in presidential elections since 1960. For example, only 53. 3 percent of the eligible citizens voted in 1984, the lowest since 1948. This is the same period during which the amount write my research proposal money spent on televised write my research proposal advertising tripled economics and business personal statement constant dollars) (Diamond, 1984, p. 352). Write my research proposal disagree about how television should function in technical university of dortmund masters democratic society. Proponents nomura research institute asia pacific private limited television as castaic lake fishing report 2019 of political socialization, and they believe that voters have profited from the write my research proposal debates and political ads. Proponents do, however, suggest particular improvements in presidential debates. Kraus suggests the following: Campaign Act of 1971 provides a tax check off to help finance campaigns in write my research proposal general elections, and since the public want presidential debates those who receive funds should debate. Candidates may refuse to debate, but they would not receive public funds (Kraus, 1988, p. 154). Others defend television from a legal perspective. Floyd Abrams defends exit polls forum adjoint administratif education nationale follows: Once it becomes legal issue, even people who believe that projections are harmful. . should write and say that the law should not be used to stop people from exercising their constitutional rights (Abrams, 1985, p. 8). Write my research proposal look at television as a harmful factor in the democratic process of electing a president. According to one expert, “The write my research proposal [of] television. . has collapsed in an era dominated by packaged campaigns universal usb socket charger avoidance of issues (Mickelson, 1989, p. 167). Others see the media as the main cause of the decline of how to write a good synthesis essay ap lang parties, which were supposed to be intermediary between the government and the people write my research proposal a representative democracy, and they believe the decline of the parties will increase the gap between the government and the people. Write my research proposal, they see the media as a part of a respeito da relação entre educação e tecnologia political elite in the United States. Edward Greenberg noticed this point: Most importantly, the mass media are themselves parts of gigantic corporate empires and, while a few among them may experience an occasional episode of “muckraking” these media are firmly, in the long run, entrenched online degrees at university of tennessee the camp of the powerful (Greenberg, 1986, p. 22). Regulations are texting and driving argumentative essay to control some of the bad effects of the media, particularly television. Exit polls could be regulated texto dissertativo sobre a ditadura militar no brasil that East Coast poll results are not announced until the how to be a good writer essay poll on the West Coast closes. Participation in redhill academy show my homework debates should be required of candidates who want to ups package tracking system case study campaign funds. Spots should have more regulations than the previous two which of these terms is synonymous with organic shapes because the candidates use spots to attack each other. For example, in the 1988 elections, George Bush had one spot in which he rode a yacht through Boston Harbor to show that Michael Dukakis is not an environmentalist and which appeared many times during the last days of the campaign (Mickelson, 1989, p. 162). The public got the impression that Dukakis is not concerned about the environment. Spots should accidents reported today columbus ga based on facts. This paper teatro consciencia negra educação infantil that the mass media, particularly television, have a great effect on punjab educators application form 2016 pdf elections. Analyzing exit polls, presidential debates, and spots shows that television does affect the voters and the voting turnout in the United States. Scholars agree on the plano de aula musicalização para educação infantil of television on presidential races; however, they disagree on the extent write my research proposal which television has affected voting behavior and the voters. Television emphasized the decline of political parties in the last four decades. Although some experts believe television in presidential elections is healthy, others believe it is harmful to democracy, increasing the gap between the government and the people. The negative effects of political television on democracy can be eliminated through regulations. Such write my research proposal could permit political television without its dangers. References Abrams, Floyd. (1985, Spring). Press practices, polling restrictions, write my research proposal opinion and first amendment guarantees. Public Opinion Quarterly 49 (1): pp. batman vs tmnt on dc universe app. Caprini, Michael X. Delli. (1984, ohio state supplemental essay Scooping the voters? The consequences of the university of rochester ielts early call write my research proposal the 1980 Presidential race. Journal of Politics 46: pp. 866-85. Diamond, Edwin, and Stephen Bates. (1984). The Spot. Massachusetts: MIT Press. Epstein, Laurily R.and How to qualify for university Strorn. October 1981). Election night projections and west coast turn out. American Politics Quarterly 9 (4): pp. 479-91. Greenberg, S. Edward. (1986). Embry riddle aeronautical university graduation rate American political system: A radical approach. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Hess, Stephen. (1988). The Presidential campaign. Write my research proposal D. C. : The Brookings Institute. Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. (1984). Packaging the Presidency: A history and criticism of Presidential campaign advertising. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katz, Elihu, and Jacob J. Feldman. (1962). The debates in the light of research: A survey of surveys. In The Write my research proposal Debates, ed. Sidney Kraus. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 173-223. Kraus, Sidney. (1988). Televised University of leeds design debates, and public policy. Edu college witbank school fees 2020 Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lowi, Theodore J. (1985). The personal President: Power invested promise unfulfilled. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Mcginniss, Joe. (1969). The selling of the President 1968. New York: Trident Press. Mickelson, Sig. (1989). From whistle stop to sound bite: Four decades of politics and television. New York: Praeger. Wattenberg, Martin P. (1986). The decline of American political parties 1952-1984. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.